Y-DNA Haplogroups in Turkic People

Y-DNA Haplogroups in Turkic People Author: Ilhan Cengiz, 2015

This article will give a brief overview of Y-DNA haplogroups which exist in Turkic people in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Genetic research indicates that Turkic people do not consist of just a single or a few haplogroups, but they stock nearly 18 Y-DNA haplogroups. It is impossible to reduce the roots of Turkic people into a few haplogroups or a certain geographical location. It is apparent that Turkic people consist of various Y-DNA haplogroups, which evolved into new lineages within thousand of years.

Historically, Turkic culture and language were risen over the tribal federation of steppe people from the Volga River to eastern steppes under the name of “Turk” by the Turkic Khaganate between the sixth and eighth centuries. Then Khazar Khaganate appeared as the western wing of Turkic tribal federations between the Dnieper and Volga Rivers across the Caucasus and Azerbaijan to Pontic-Caspian steppes between 7th and 11th centuries.


Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and Khazar Khaganate (630-1048)

Turks were known to be semi-nomadic people of steppes who spread into Eurasia, Middle East and North Africa. It is possible that the first state called “Turkic Khaganate” had already stocked various Y-DNA haplogroups when it was founded in a large area from the Volga and Caspian steppes to Eastern Asia (Check the map). All these Y-DNA haplogroups are similar to each other in 12 STR haplotypes or SNPs, which shows the genetic relation.

Turkic Khaganate was a tribal confederation in Central Asia, which also included various haplogroups at that time. The history displays that both the ancestors and descendants of Turkic tribes spread into especially Europe and Middle East over the last two thousands years or in earlier times. They might have spread various haplogroups within that time. They founded dozens of states and empires through the history, and spread over the world with time.

Central Asia, which is thought to be the homeland of Turkic people, also stocks a significant amount of Y-DNA haplogroups today as it was in the past. It is apparent that Turkic people are the genetic descendants of ancient steppe people of Eurasia (East Europe and Central Asia) such as Huns, Xiongnu, Bulgars, Khazars, Oghuz, Pechenegs, Cumans, Scythians, Sarmatians, Massagetes, Cimmerians, Tocharians, Ephthalites (White Huns), Alans, Eurasian Avars, Juanjuans etc. Y-DNA haplogroups which are seen among Turkic people of Ural-Volga, Southern and Central Asia are listed below with the percentages from several genetic researches. In general, Turkic ethnicities in Asia Minor (except Afshars) are not included in this research in order to see the genetic stock in Central Asia.

Haplogroup C: Kazakhs 36% [1], Karakalpaks 22.7% [3], Kyrgyz people 8.9% [2], Khakas people 5.7% [4], Uygurs 4.3% [5]

Haplogroup C-M130 is attributed to the northeast of Asia as it is easy to find the highest frequencies among the indigenous populations of Mongolia. This haplogroup is found at lower frequencies among Turkic people of Central Asia except Kazakhs. On the other hand, Mongolic and Tungusic people have the highest frequencies. It is possible that this haplogroup might have spread into Turks during the Mongol invasions of 13th century as well as previous tribal leagues in the history.

Haplogroup E: Chuvash people 14%[6], Kazan Tatars 5.7%[6], Kazakhs 2%[1], Uzbeks 1.5%[1]

It is discussed whether the haplogroup E-M96 originated in Africa or Asia, but it is possible to see the highest frequencies of haplogroup E in Africa. On the other hand, E-M243, which is a common subclade in North Africa, is also found in Europe (Albania, Greece and Italy) and Asia at significant frequencies. Haplogroup E-M78 is also found in the ethnicities of Ural-Volga region such as Chuvash people [Turkic] (14%), and Mordvins [Uralic] (10,2%), which is a significant amount. 

Haplogroup F*: Kazakh 4.8% [2], Yugurs(China) 6.2% [2]

F is the 40.000 year-old father of the haplogroups: G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T. The father of F is CF. The minor sub-groups of F (F-M89) haplogroup have been observed in Yugurs of North China and Kazakhs in a frequency of 4-6%. The minor subclades of this haplogroup has also been observed in the Indian subcontinent as well.[17] These findings indicate that the possible origin place of haplogroup F might be somewhere in Central or Southern Asia. On the other hand, the major sub-groups of Haplogroup F are Haplogroups G, H, [IJ], and K.

Haplogroup G: Kazakhs 10% [1], Kazan Tatars 7.6%, Tuymaznsky Tatars 8% [6], Uzbeks 3.9% [9]

Haplogroup G (G-M201) is subdivided as G1 and G2. The haplogroup G1 is more common in Argyn and  Madjar tribes of Kazakhs whereas G2a is more common in Tatar and Nogay tribes of Kazakhstan. On the other hand, G2a is also found in Caucasian ethnicities. In Turkey, G has a frequency of 11% among Turkish males18 whereas this percentage is around 18% in Azerbaijan.

Haplogroup H: Turkmens 6% [3], Uzbeks 3.1%[9]

Haplogroup H is common in South Asia, but it is also found in Central Asian Turkic people at various frequencies. 

Haplogroup I1: Kazan Tatars 11.3% [6], Tuymaznsky Tatars 8% [6], Chuvash people 7% [6], Gagauz people 4% [7]

Haplogroup I1(I-M253) is more common in northern Europe with a frequency of 37% in Sweden, 31.6% in Norway, 28% in Finland. Tatars of Eastern Europe also has a significant amount of this haplogroup.

Haplogroup I2: Gagauz people 20% [7],  Chuvash people 4.7% [6],  Kazan Tatars 1.9% [6],  Tuymaznsky Tatars 4% [6]

The haplogroup I2 (I-M438) also has a significant amount among Turkic people of Eastern Europe. This haplogroup has the highest frequency in Bosniaks with a frequency of 55.5%, and then 26% in Romania. However, it is possible to see this haplogroup in Turkic people as well. 

Haplogroup J1: Azerbaijani Turks 15.2% [8], Uzbeks 2,3% [9], Chuvash 2.3% [6], Tuymaznsky Tatars 2% [6], Kazakhs 2% [1], Gagauz people 2% [7]

Although Haplogroup J1 (J-M267) is more common in Caucasia and Middle East, it is possible to see this haplogroup among Turkic people. It is possible to see this haplogroup among Turkic people from Altai mountains to Balkans. 

J2 haplogrubu: Uygurs 34%[2], Uzbeks %30.4[2, East Turkestan], Azerbaijani Turks 30.6%[20], Crimean Karaites 30%[19],  Hazara people 26.6%[22], Kumyks 25%[21], Balkars 24%[10], Lithuanian Tatars 18.9[23], Turkmens 17%[11], Uzbeks 16%[9], Kazan Tatars 15.1%[6], Chuvash people 14%[6], Nogays 10.4%[21], Kazakhs 7%[1]

It is not obvious where J2 originated exactly. J2 is one of the most highest haplogroups in Caucasus; it is also high in some parts of Central Asia. Turkish people also has a 24% frequency of J2 in Turkey. It also has significant frequencies in Central Asian Turkic people such as Uygurs, Uzbeks and Turkmens, and also common in Middle Eastern Turks such as Azerbaijani, Iraqi/Syrian Turkmens and Turkish people. J2 is one of the most common haplogroups in the world, spreading from Northern China to Portugal, and from Lithuania to Arabia with the highest frequencies in West Asia. J2 is subdivided into two sub-groups: J2a and J2b. Turkic people are mostly related to J2a; however, J2b is also observed in Ural-Volga Tatars, Uzbeks and Hazara people. It is possible to observe most of J2 variations among Turkic people such as J2-M322, J2-M410, J2-M530 (J2-L24), J2-M67, J2-M92, J2-L26 etc. This haplogroup is found in nearly all Turkic people at lower or higher frequencies.

Haplogroup L: Afshars 57% [12], Uzbeks 9,5% [9], Tuymaznsky Tatars 4% [6]

Haplogroup L is supposed to have originated somewhere in South Asia. However, this haplogroup is common in most of Turkic people at various frequencies.

Haplogroup N: Kazan Tatars 28.3% [6], Chuvash people 27.9% [6], Northern Altai people 10% [13], Kazakhs 8% [1], Kyrgyz 4.4%[1], Uzbeks 3,9% [9]

Haplogroup N is supposed to be related to Northern Asia and Europe. Typically haplogroup N is found in northern people of Asia and Europe such as Finnish and North Siberian people. For example, haplogroup N is found in Nenets at 97.3%; Khanti people at 76.6%, Finnish people at 61.5%, Lithuanians 42%, Yupiks (of Eskimo) at 50.6%. However, this haplogroup is also found in northern Turkic people. 

Haplogroup O: Uygurs 10.5% [14], Southern Altaians 10% [13], Kazakhs 5%[1]-26.1%[24]

Haplogroup O is supposed to have originated somewhere in eastern or southeastern Asia. However, this haplogroup is also found in Turkic people of Central Asia at significant proportions. 

Haplogroup Q: Uzbeks 9,5% [9], Uygurs 3% [16], Kyrgyz 2.2%, Kazakhs 2% [1]

Haplogroup Q is found in indigenous peoples of the Americas at the highest frequencies. However, this haplogroup is supposed to have originated somewhere in Siberia 20.000 years ago. It is also found in Europeans at a frequency of 0.5-2.5%. Tungusic people has this haplogroup at lower frequencies such as 4.2% whereas Selkups has it at %66.4 [15]. Kets who are of Dene-Yenisey language family has haplogroup Q at %93.7 [15]. Turkic people also has this haplogroup, but it is observed that it is not more than 10%.

Haplogroup R1a: Kyrgyz 63.5% [11], Uzbeks 27% [9], Kazan Tatars 20% [6], Gagauz people 19% [7], Kazakhs 15% [1], Turkmens 7% [11]

Haplogroup R1a is a common Y-DNA haplogroup which is usually observed in Turkic, Germanic and Slavic people of Eurasian steppes at significant frequencies. It is interesting that this haplogroup is especially observed in Kygyz people in Central Asia at a frequency of 63,5%, which is a significant amount. This haplogroup is found in nearly all Turkic people at lower or higher frequencies.

Haplogroup R1b: Bashkirs 43% [6], Tuymaznsky Tatars 16% [6], Gagauz people 12.5%, Uzbeks 11,1% [9], Kazakhs 7% [1]

Haplogroup R1b is also common in Turkic and Western European people. Haplogroup R1b is found at a higher frequency in especially Bashkirs in Ural-Volga region. This haplogroup is also found in other Turkic people at various frequencies. 

Haplogroup R2: Karakalpaks 6,8% [3], Uzbeks 3,1% [9]

Haplogroup R2 is a more common haplogroup in Southern Asia; however, it is also observed in Central Asian Turkic people at various frequencies. 

Haplogroup T: Uzbeks 1,5% [9]

Haplogroup T is sparsely populated in Southern Asia, Europe and Eastern Africa, but this haplogroup is also found in Central Asian Turkic people at lower frequencies.  This article might be updated with time, by adding new frequencies for Y-DNA haplogroups of Turkic people. If you encounter any mistakes or mispellings, please inform me by using comment box below. Click on the following pie charts to see them in full size:

özbeklerde y-dna haplogroup dağılımıcuvas-y-dna-haplogrup-dagilimikazaklar-y-dna-haplogrup-dagilimituymazinsky-tatarlari-y-dna-haplogrup-dagilimikazan-tatarlari-y-dna-haplogrup-dagilimilithuaniaHazara-people-y-dna-haplogroups-genetics-dna

[1] KZ DNA Project, FTDNA
[2] Shou et al. 2010, Y-Chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identyfiy significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians. (List). Samplings.
[3] Wells, Spencer et al 2001, The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity
[4] Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions
[5] Xue, Yali et al 2006 Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times
[6] Trofimova, the variability of mitochondrial DNA and Y-DNA in populations of Volga-Ural region, 03.02.07, P.111, Institute of Biochemistry & Genetics, Russia (Note: This file has been removed from the Internet, but I have it. If you ask, I can send it to your email address.)
[7] Eupedia, Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage
[8] Di Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Popa, L. O.; Akar, N.; Anagnou, N.; Banyko, J.; Brdicka, R.; Barbujani, G. et al. (2004). “Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe”. Human Genetics 115 (5): 357–371. PMID 15322918
[9] Julie Di Cristifaro, Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge, See Table S5.
[10] Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (2008). “Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe”.European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30.
[11] Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, et al. (2001) The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 10244-10249.
[12] Omer Gokcumen, “Ethnohistorical and genetic survey of four Central Anatolian settlements” (January 1, 2008)
[13] Khar’kov, VN; Stepanov, VA; Medvedeva, OF; Spiridonova, MG; Voevoda, MI; Tadinova, VN; Puzyrev, VP (2007). “Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups”. Genetika 43(5): 675–87.
[14] Michael F Hammer et al 2005, Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 51, 47–58; doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
[15] Tambets, Kristiina et al 2004, The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes
[16] Michael F Hammer et al 2005, Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 51, 47–58; doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
[17] Y-DNA Haplogroup F and Its Subclades, 2015
[18] Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL et al. (January 2004). “Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.
[19] Brook, Kevin A. (2014), The Genetics of Crimean Karaites, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, N: 42, p.69-84
[20] Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
[21] Yunusbayev, Bayazit et al 2006, Genetic Structure of Dagestan Populations: A Study of 11 Alu Insertion Polymorphisms
[22] PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e34288. Published online Mar 28, 2012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288 Afghanistan’s Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events, Note: J2a=16.6%, and J2a5=10%. The total J2 is 26.6%. See Table.
[23] Lithuanian Tatars Nobility Project, FTDNA, 37 samples in groups have been retrieved for the pie chart, 12.01.2015.
[24] Dulik, Matthew C. et al 2011, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions

Önerilen yazılar:
Orta Asya’nın Genetik Yapısı
Y-DNA Haplogrupları

One thought on “Y-DNA Haplogroups in Turkic People

  1. Anon says:

    Nice work and breakdown .. Thankyou .. I am J2am67 from England .. Interesting to know that I have distant relatives among Turkic peoples .

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